I live next door in the great repressive state of NY. It took a while to remember, but your posting reminded me of when I use to carry a 1858 remmy in Mass loaded w/o caps, while hiking in the Berkshires, back around 25 years ago. Curious about where the firearms laws in Mass stand today, I looked up the Massachusetts Gun Owners Action League website. Here is what I found on there re Mass laws and black powder guns: "According to the exemption listed in Chapter 140, section 129C(p), residents and non-residents do not need a License to Carry a Firearm or a Firearms Identification Card to possess or carry a primitive rifle or shotgun. However, the state courts have decided that a License to Carry a Firearm is necessary to possess a black powder handgun outside the home[/b]. So, unfortunately, I can't legally carry my remmy in the great socialist state of Massachusetts any more. Your carrying a .31 BP revolver outside your home in Mass will land you in jail. So I'd either move to VA soon or, if I wanted to take the risk and break the law, which I wouldn't, I'd carry something substantial which would knock the threat down and out of commission, be it two or four legged! Just my two cents!